When you browse the Internet via your browser, you bounce from document to document by playing the role of the client who places his orders from servers to servers, according to the principle of hypertext.
What is the principle of hypertext?
I’ll let its inventor, my father, Tim Berners-Lee, explain this to you (Tim Berners-Lee may not have invented the principle himself, but he invented its realization in the form of the Word Wide Web, “The web of global scope”):
“HYPERTEXT IS A MEANS OF LINKING AND ACCESSING INFORMATION OF VARIOUS KINDS, LIKE A NETWORK OF NODES IN WHICH THE USER CAN NAVIGATE AT WILL. »
“HYPERTEXT IS TEXT THAT IS NOT LIMITED TO BEING LINEAR. […] HYPERTEXT IS TEXT THAT CONTAINS LINKS TO OTHER TEXTS. THE TERM WAS COINED BY TED NELSON AROUND 1965. “
Links, therefore, constitute the foundation of hypertext and the foundation of the Web as invented by Tim Berners-Lee when, a physicist at the European Council for Nuclear Research ( CERN ), he was looking for a way to facilitate the sharing of global information for the scientific community.
Hyperlinks are those elements of web pages that link them together and allow you to navigate from one to the other when you click on them.
Hypertext links are either images or clickable parts of a text, which web page designers generally indicate, by convention, by underlining them.
When hovering the mouse, the cursor turns into a small hand. When clicking on the text or image, a new page-load in the browser.
But you can already understand that HTML links consist of two main elements :
- clickable text or image displayed in your browser window
- the URL of the resource to which the link in question points, a URL that indicates its location on one of the millions of servers on the World Wide Web.
To code a link in HTML, it will, therefore, be a question of associating these two elements …
THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF LINKS
Hypertext links, therefore, make it possible to navigate between different servers (in this case, they are called ” external links “).
But they also allow you to navigate to another page on the same website located on the same server computer (in this case, they are called ” internal links “), or even in another place on the current page (thanks to are called ” HTML anchors “).